The IFoA’s Head of Public Affairs and Research, Annette Spencer, gave a presentation to the Casualty Actuarial Society on the “Story of Brexit” last year. View the presentation for a more in-depth analysis of the timeline and attitudes that influenced the UK’s decision to leave the EU.
|7 May, 2015||Conservative Mandate||In the general election, David Cameron wins a 12-seat majority with a manifesto that includes the commitment to hold an in/out referendum on the UK’s membership of the European Union.|
|23 June, 2016||The Referendum||The referendum sees Leave campaigners win a narrow victory with 51.9% against and 48.1% for Remain. Mr Cameron resigns immediately as Prime Minister.|
|13 July, 2016||New PM||Theresa May becomes Prime Minister.|
|17 January, 2017||Lancaster House Speech||
The PM gives her first speech setting out the type of Brexit deal she will be pursuing when formal negotiations begin. The key points covered in the speech included:
|29 March, 2017||Article 50||The PM triggers Article 50 which starts the clock on the process of the UK leaving the EU.|
|8 June, 2017||Snap Election||Having surprised many by calling a general election, the PM loses her majority in Parliament. Northern Ireland's DUP - led by Arlene Foster - makes a deal with the Conservatives and its votes allow the PM to stay in power.|
|26 June, 2017||Negotiations Begin||Formal negotiations on withdrawal begin between the UK and the EU.|
|22 September, 2017||Florence Speech||
In an effort to break a deadlock in the negotiations, the PM set out the UK's position on how to move Brexit talks forward on the following key areas:
|13 December, 2017||Westminster Rebellion||Rebel Tory MPs side with the Opposition, forcing the government to guarantee a vote on the final Brexit deal, when it has been struck with Brussels.|
|15 December, 2017||Negotiations Phase 2||The EU agrees to move on to the second phase of negotiations after an agreement is reached on the Brexit “divorce bill”, Irish border and EU citizens’ rights.|
|2 March, 2018||Mansion House Speech||
The PM gives a third speech outlining her plans for the next phase of negotiations. Topics included:
|19 March, 2018||Negotiations Progress||The UK and EU make decisive steps in negotiations. Agreements include dates for a transitional period after Brexit day, the status of EU citizens in the UK before and after that time and fishing policy. Issues still to be sorted out include the Northern Ireland border.|
|6 July, 2018||Chequers Statement||
The Government forms a final list of demands from the EU at a ‘Cabinet Away Day’, attempting to reach a general consensus on the content of the Brexit legislation, and how the final round of negotiations will progress. It covered:
Preparation for a ‘no deal Brexit’
|12 July, 2018||White Paper Published||The Government published its Brexit White Paper, outlining the Government's approach to managing the country's withdrawal from the EU.|
|15 November, 2018||The Clock Runs Out||Theresa May presented the deal to Parliament.|
|25 November, 2018||EU Summit||EU Leaders agree to the Prime Ministers Brexit deal.|
14 January, 2019
|Vote||The Government was defeated in a 'meaningful vote' on the Withdrawal Agreement|
|12 March, 2019||Second Vote||The Government held its second 'meaningful vote' on the Withdrawal agreement which was defeated.|
|21 March, 2019||Extension||The Prime Minister secured a short extension to Article 50 to delay Brexit until 12 April. The EU has said that agreement on a further extension of Article 50 to the end of May would be possible, but only if the UK approves a withdrawal agreement before 12 April.|
|10 April 2019||Second Extension||
The Prime Minister and EU leaders agreed to a flexible extension of Article 50 until 31 October 2019. The UK has until this date to agree and pass a withdrawal deal.
|23 - 26 May, 2019||European Elections||The UK participates in European Elections, selecting 73 MEPs in 12 multi-member regional constituencies.|
|24 May, 2019||Theresa May resigns||Theresa May declares that she will step down as Prime Minister on 7 June 2019. The Conservative Party will select a new leader and Prime Minister. The new Government will take the lead in delivering Brexit.|
|24 July 2019||Boris Johnson confirmed as new Prime Minister||Boris Johnson succeeds Theresa May as the UK's 55th Prime Minister|
|17 October 2019||EU Summit||The final scheduled summit of EU leaders before the October 31 deadline begins in Brussels. The Prime Minister announces that a revised deal has been struck.|
|19 October 2019||Benn Act Deadline||
In accordance with the terms of the Benn Act, the PM asked the EU for a further extension of its departure date, as a deal had not been approved by Parliament, and Parliament did not consent to the UK leaving with no-deal.
|22 October 2019||MPs Vote on the Withdrawal Agreement||
The Withdrawal Agreement Bill passes its second stage reading in the House of Commons, but failed to pass its program motion, ensuring that the UK's departure on the 31 October would be delayed, with the EU’s agreement.
|28 October 2019||EU Agrees to Extension||
The European Union agreed to grant the U.K. up to three more months to finalise its departure. Brexit will take place on the first day of the month following the ratification of the Withdrawal Agreement, “or on 1 February 2020, whichever is the earliest.”
|1 December 2019||First Possible Departure Date||According to the terms of the extension of Article 50, the UK can leave the EU on this date if the House of Commons and the European Parliament ratify the exit deal before this date.|
|12 December 2019||General Election||A General Election was held and a new majority Government was formed.|
|23 January 2020||Withdrawal Agreement Bill||The EU Withdrawal Agreement Bill receives Royal Assent|
|31 January 2020||Second Possible Departure Date||The UK Leaves the EU and enters into the transition period.|
The ongoing negotiations between Westminster and the EU are constantly changing. There is still much uncertainty surrounding both how, and when, we will depart from the EU.
As the existing state of affairs develops we will endeavour to keep you updated with the latest news. Should you want any further information please contact the IFoA Policy team – firstname.lastname@example.org
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